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Levofloxacin: Use, Side Effect, Mechanism action, Interaction, Dose


What is Levofloxacin used for

The Levofloxacin use includes curing of infections, mainly bacterial. For viral fever or common cold, the drug is ineffective. Being a broad spectrum antibiotic, it targets in curing of infections pertaining to urinary tract, skin and respiratory tract. The sinuses, lungs, ears, airways, bones, and joints might not respond to other antibiotics after infection where Levofloxacin can rescue. For diarrhea caused by strains of E. coliCampylobacter jejuni, and Shigella as well as inflammation of prostate glands, this drug can be extremely effective. Obstetric infections like mastitis and inhalation anthrax can also be treated with it.
Levofloxacin 500 mg Tablets
Levofloxacin 500 mg Tablets
The Levaquin antibiotic can be consumed orally for effective treatment against infections. Oral solutions are obtained at 25 mg/mL concentration. The patient can take this with or without food intake once daily. It is advisable to consume the drug while on an empty stomach. The duration depends on renal response and treatment efficiency.
One variant of the Levofloxacin drug is the Levoflox 500 or Levaquin 500 mg, Both of the tablets manufactured in the form of film coated tablets, each tablet contains Levofloxacin 500mg active Ingrediants. Some of the pharmaceutical company are also manufacturing Levofloxacin 750mg Tablets Certain amount of lactose is also an ingredient of this tablet.
The tablet is prescribed for treating bacterial infections like:
  • Sinusitis
  • Worsening cases of chronic bronchitis
  • Community-acquired Pneumonia
  • Tissue and skin infections

Levofloxacin Side effects

Like all antibiotics, Levofloxacin tablets also have certain varying side effects, while some are common, some are uncommon and some are very rare. Likewise, these side effects may be mild, negligible or severe.
Some of the common side effects of Levofloxacin 500 mg, which are quite mild and don’t need much attention are:
  • Diarrhea
  • Insomnia
  • Headache and felling giddy
  • Nausea and repeated vomiting
There are more uncommon side effects such as:
  • Resistance or allergy to this Drug
  • Bone marrow problems
  • Respiratory problems
  • Nervous breakdowns
  • Constipation
  • Flatulence
  • Sweating and indigestion
  • Body rash
  • Pain in the joints
  • Appetite loss
  • Intestinal Pain
  • Vertigo
  • General weakness
There are also certain very rare side effects such as:
  • Angioedema- a skin related condition
  • Convulsions
  • Reduction of sugar levels
  • Depression and mental problems like nightmares, hallucinations, hypersensitivity, aggression.
  • Visual problems
  • Temperatures and high fever
  • Kidney issues
  • Low Blood pressure
  • Weak muscles
  • Palpitations
  • Tendonitis
And finally, there are some one-of-their-kind side effects whose frequency and occurrence is highly unknown. These include:
  • Arthritis
  • Unusual muscle movements
  • Heart attacks
  • ECG changes
  • Loss of consciousness at times
  • Lethargy and grogginess
  • Hearing impairments
  • Seizures

Levofloxacin Mechanism of action

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are the class to which Levofloxacin belongs. It is known to cure infections caused by most of the well known gram negative bacteria, methicillin-sensitive gram positive bacteria and bacterial pathogens belonging to pneumonia species. It inhibits DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV required for DNA replication and cell division.
Ciprofloxacin is alos belongs to Fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Lets Know how Total Process of Work
First we discuss about gram negative bacteria, After infection of the bacteria, bacteria try to replicate in the host cell. One DNA is replicate to multiple DNA. In this Replication process DNA gyrase is Important role.
Levofloxacin Structure
Levofloxacin Structure

DNA gyrase is consist of two A and two B subunit. A subunit are helps to Nicking of cutting DNA and B subunit are helps to remove of the negative supper coiled DNA . Both the activity are helps each other to multiplication of the DNA.

Levofloxacin are Love to bind with subunit A and block the action of subunit A so that Nicking process are stop simultaneously Gram negative Bacteria replication Stop.
In the gram positive bacteria all the mechanism are similar to gram negative bacteria But in case of gram positive bacteria enzyme name is Topoisomerase IV. In the topoisomerase IV one subunit are affected by levofloxacin and stop the nicking DNA after the DNA replication.

Levofloxacin Pharmacokinetics

This medicine is more active against Strep. pneumonia and other gram negative and gram positive bacteria.
This drug is high potency and oral bioavailability of Levofloxacin are 100 % and same for I.V rout. This medicine is sufficient for single dose in a day.
If patient treated with this medication other medicine like Theophylline, warfarin, cyclosporine and
Zidovudine are not working.
Plasma peak concentration are riches 1-2 hour after taking this medication. Volume of distribution  after taking 500 mg tablets is 74 to 112 liter in body tissue.
This medicine is well stable in the urine and faces and dose not changes to enantiomer or other. 87% of the administered drug is removed form the body within 48 hour in Urine and rest of all the drug are excreted though bile or faces in 72 hours.

Which type of patients are not take Levofloxacin 500 mg?
Though Levofloxacin is a widely prescribed antibiotic, there are certain patients to whom this drug should never be prescribed. These are the patients who broadly fall under any of the following:
  •  Epileptic patients
  • Pregnant women
  • Children or adolescents
  • Nursing mothers
  • Patients with a history of tendonitis
  • Patients allergic to Levofloxacin

Levofloxacin dosage

The dosage prescribed depends on the level of infection and any possibility of pathogenic effect on the patient, simply meaning that whether the drug suits the patient or not.
Levofloxacin Tablets
Levofloxacin Tablets

Majorly viewing, the dosage varies from once a day to twice for 7 to 28 days, depending on the bacterial infection. The severity of the infections also has to be taken into consideration while advising the dosage. It is only in the case of Anthrax exposure that the drug has to be taken for the longest period of time that is for eight weeks.
The dosage for Levofloxacin tablets should be taken strictly as per one’s doctor’s prescription. It differs from patient to patient and the dosage is mostly dependent on the severity of the infection. Other factors deciding the dosage are strength of the medicine (volume in milligrams), number of doses, time gap between doses and the duration of the course.
  • For any normal infection, dosage varying between 250 to 750 mg, once a day for adults and as per doctor’s prescription for children
  • For an infection of Anthrax, a dosage of 500 mg for adults and children alike, taken once a day. For infants, the dosage has to be given as per doctor’s advice
  • For Plague infection, again a dosage of 500 mg for adults and children alike, this is to be taken once a day.
It should be noted that for children of age six months and more, weighing less than 15 kgs, the dosage has to be altered as per doctor’s advice.

Levofloxacin Eye Drops

Levofloxacin eye drops should be applied every two hours during the day for the first two days. This it to be followed by four times daily dosage for the next three days. Let’s have a look into the procedure:
  • Hands should be thoroughly cleaned
  • The cap or tip needs to removed
  • Head should be inclined backwards and using your hand pull down the lower eyelid
  • Direct the tip towards the eye making sure it is close enough not to miss but does not touch the same
  • Squeeze the bottle to eject out the drop
  • Shut the eyelid for a maximum of two minutes and gently press the lachrymal gland region in the corner of the eye
  • Repeat the above mentioned process for the second eye if required
  • Replace the cap or dispose in case it is a single dose unit
Oftaquix eye drops have Levofloxacin as their primary ingredient. After taking the dosage, temporary blurriness or stickiness can be caused which is nothing to fear as it wears off soon. Never wear contact lens while the prescribed dosage is going on. Consult your physician if the problem shows no improvement or you catch a different infection. It should not be used for children below one year age.

Levofloxacin drug-drug Interaction

Levofloxacin antibiotics are showing drug-drug interaction when taking with other medicine like chelation agents, warfarin, Anti diabetic, NSAIDs, Theophylline, Cyclosporine, Digoxin, Probencid and cimetidine.

Chelation agents

When this drug is taking with antacid containing magnesium, aluminum, Sucralfate, metal cataion contain Iron, Multivitamin containing Zinc showing Interaction.
Levofloxacin can’t absorve through Gastrointestinal tract if patients are taking this medicine along with.

Warfarin

There are no any major side effects are shown at the time of clinical trail and warfarin have no any effect on absorption or elimination of the drug from the body. Some market complain are come levofloxacin can enhance the metabolism of warfarin hence clotting time of blood increase.

Anti diabetic

When this medicine are taking along with Levofloxacin, blood glucose level may increase or decrease. So patient must take care yourself and check the blood glucose frequently for better life.

Non steroidal anti inflammatory drug  (NSAID)  

Continuously use of NSAIDs along with this antibiotics chances of CNS stimulation may increase. So that headache and pain may rise.

 Levofloxacin Warnings and precautions

Warnings are helps you protect you any unwanted side effect. Before taking this medicine you must take advice of doctor or pharmacist or medicinal practciner if patients are suffer:
 Patients are 60 years of age or older.
 Patients are using corticosteroids, sometimes called steroids for the body building.
Person who are suffering brain injury due to a stroke or other brain injury.
Any one have kidney problems.
People deficiency of ‘glucose – 6 – phosphate dehydrogenase ’.
When taking this medicine changes some thing serious changes in the blood.     
Person had mental health problems.
Person ever had Heart problems : Warning for taken when using this kind of
medicine, if in your family have any one affected long QT syndrome which is identify by ECG.
Or any changes of content in the blood  like potassium or magnesium or slow of the heart rate have a weak heart (heart failure), have a history of heart attack (myocardial infarction),
Patients are suffering enlargement or "bulge" of a large blood vessel (aorticaneurysm or large vessel peripheral aneurysm).
If patients family history of aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection or other risk factors or
predisposing conditions (e.g. connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome, or vascular
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or vascular disorders such as Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis,
Behcet’s disease, high blood pressure, or known atherosclerosis).
 If patients are diabetic.
 If patients had liver problems.
 People who had suffering myasthenia gravis.
 Those people are suffering pain in the body various part like abdomen, chest, back pain etc. 

Other warnings

Tell your doctor immediately, If patients suffering severe, persistent and bloody diarrhoea during or after treatment with levofloxacin. Some patients are may affected serious inflammation in bowel (pseudomembranous colitis), which can sometimes occur after antibiotic treatment.
You may need to stop taking levofloxacin or you can use another alternative medicine.
 Those patients are taking levofloxacin they must reach out form sunlight because this medicine   react with sunlight showing more side effects. Patients may suffer sunburn like reaction.
 If you feel these symptoms Burning, tingling, pain or numbness then you should stop taking medicine.
Levofloxacin is not a optimal therapy for most severe cases of Pneumococcal pneumonia.
If Infections got from a hospital during treatment due to P.aeruginosa may require combination
therapy.
 Levofloxacin doesn’t work for MRSA infection so don’t take this medicine for the treatment of MRSA infection.

Can you take levofloxacin with alcohol?

NO, don’t take levofloxacin with alchol. If you drink alchol and doctor prescribe the medicine you should take this medicine after 72 hours.





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