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Lamivudine side effect, Mechanism , Dosage, History


Lamivudine side effect , Mechanism of Action 



Lamivudine other name is 3TC which is the abbreviation  name of this medicine. lamivudine is used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This medicine is coming under antiretroviral medication. Lamivudine is very effective against both HIV -1 and HIV 2. Lamivudine is come with combination with zidovudine, abacavir, and Tenofovir. This medicine is also used for the treatment of Hepatitis B in some cases.
Lamivudine Tablets manufacture by Cipla
Lamivudine Tablets

What is side effect is shown if you have take Lamivudine ?

Some common side effect are nausea, vomiting, rash, diarrhea, headache, pain, depression, weakness, fatigue, nasal sign and symptoms, cough, dizziness, sleeping trouble, drowsiness.  If you suffer more in any condition immediately contact your doctor or pharmacist. If the any symptoms are not gone away then tell your doctor or health care who is give the medicine.

Worse kidney problem

If you take lamivudine there are chances of Kidney problem . if you previously suffer the kidney problem then told your doctor before prescribing this medicine . if you start continuing this medicine you can test your blood for knowing of kidney problem  according to test report you take action.

Bone problem

This medicine show the bone problem include bone pain , softening  of bone , thinning of bone , weakness of bone, may bone fracture occur due to some external force. If you have any bone problem then tell your doctor before taking of this medicine .

Change in body fat

This problem is arises when you take this medicine. This medicine can change or increase amount of fat in the upper back and neck, breast , and around the main part of body (trunk). And loss of fat in the leg, arms ,face may occur. This condition is arises for long term.

Immune system

This medicine may increase the immune system of your body . if you have immune related problem you can take consult with your doctor.

Rash

This condition is very common for taking of this medication and it goes away without any alternation of dose or medicine . if you have more serious rash then you can consult with your doctor .

Mechanism of action

Lamivudine is act in the Reverse transcriptase enzyme present in the HIV virus. lamivudine is deoxycytidine analog and phosphorylated intracellular and inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Lamivudine undergoes anabolic phosphorylation by intracellular kinases to form lamivudine 5’-triphosphate. The active form of lamivudine is to prevent the HIV 1 virus replication. it also inhibits the hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase. when single-strand RNA of HIV virus enters in to host cell single-strand RNA is transcript in DNA . all this process are done by reverse transcriptase. when this process is continue lamivudine are entered in to chain elongation and stop the chain making process as like noncode.

Lamivudine has no effect  Human DNA polymerase . and this medicine systemic toxicity is Less. This medicine target  only HIV reverse Transcriptase and Hepatitis B virus .

Metabolism of lamivudine

Oral bioavailability of this medicine is high. Plasma t1/2 is 6-8 hours, intracellular t1/2 is 12 hours. Maximum serum concentration to attained 0.5- 1.5 hours. Protine bounding capacity is more than 36%. Lamivudine is metabolized by trans-sulfoxide. The biotransformation is catalyzed by sulfotransferases.

Dosage

Lamivudine is comes with oral dosage form . available of lamivudine in the market in 100 mg , 150 mg , 300 mg .

For the HIV 1 virus 300 mg of lamivudine is taken per day for effective work. And 150 mg 2 times per day.

For chronic Hepatitis B 100 mg of this medicine is work better.

If you forgot to take the medicine one time don’t take the medicine double , it show the over dose effect of medicine that leads to various side effect.

Price of the medicine

There are many pharma company manufacturing the lamivudine like Glaxosmithkline manufacture EPIVIR TABLET for US and UK.

In India CIPLA manufacture Lamivir 150 mg tablets price 122 rupees for 10 tablets.
Epivir solution manufacture by Glaxosmithkline pharmaceutical 450 ml in the price 1350 rupees .
Cipla manufacture Lamivir tablets 300 mg price 720 rupees for 60 tablets .

History

Lamivudine minus form is known as Racemic BCH-189 invented by Bernard Belleau and Paul Nguyen –Ba in 1988. Enantiomer is isolated in the next year. Its toxicity test in YALE University. FDA approved this medicine on 17 november 1995 for the combination with other drug .



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