HIV, AIDS, How HIV virus replicate?
What is Hiv?
HIV is the virus (human immunodeficiency virus) which produce AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ).this disease directly hamper the human immune system. This virus is very dangerous . virus is protect him to grow the human body. Due to immune supresson many disease are affected.so don’t confuse HIV IS the virus and AIDS is produced when virus is affect the normal people .
|HIV VIRUS STRUCTURE|
Many people are already affected by HIV virus but they are not sohow the symptoms .because of HIV virus are take more time to replicate in the human body about 6-7 year. But in the acute stage it show many symptoms like Fever, chills, muscle aches , joint pain, sore throat , sweats in the night , gland enlarged, red rash, tiredness, weakness , unintentional weight loss, thrush.
Symptoms are shown due to infection of various virus not for the HIV . In the first stage of AIDS this type of symptoms are shown then no other symptom are shown in the later because of the virus are replication and it affect the immune system it take 6 -10 year for the complete affect the human immune system .if the patient are identified in the primary stage then medicine can stop the replication of HIV virus may patient cure.
Later stage of HIV infection
Later stage of HIV infection is also known as stage 3 HIV. There are some symptoms are seen in the stage 3 HIV like eye problems, diarrhea, dry cough, fever which is continue for weeks, night sweets, permanent tiredness, breath shortness , glands are swellen , unintentional weight loss, white spots on the mouth.
How HIV virus are replicate ?
HIV belongs to group of virus is called RNA Retro virus.
Why called retro virus ?
In generally process DNA transcript to RNA and RNA transcript to protein.which is help to improvment of human muscle and also helps to provide the energy to day today life .But in case of virus it different. RNA store all the genetical data .RNA translate to produce the DNA and continue for the next procress as per normal.in the HIV virus RNA to DNA transcription helps the RNA reverse transcriptase enzyme .so ultimately retro mean reverse procress.in the reverse procress of RNA to DNA . Is called RNA Retro virus .
Replication procress of HIV virus
HIV virus are outer side lipid membren which is protin named trans membren protein and ducking protein .trans membren protein are called GP120 which is outer side and GP41 is ducking protein(GLYCOPROTEIN) .Virus are 1st bind CD4+ cell which is more In the human body . some example: T-HELPER CELL, monocytes, macrophases having cd4+cell ,myclogya, langerhan, follicular dendrite .These cells have CD4+ binding site. So virus are love to bind these cell. When virus are bind with human CD4+ cell primarily .then conformational changes other domain are bind with chemochine receptor like CCR5, CCR4. After bind of domain of virus with cell GP41 are attached with the cell. Then fussion occur in between human cell and virus . all the constitute are transfer in to the cell.
HIV virus are conatin capsids,in between the capsid virus capsid contain some enzyme P24 , P17,reverse transcriptase, Intigrage , protiage and also Identical RNA which is not similar. Both of RNA have positive polarity.
|HIV VIRUS STRUCTURE|
After transfer to cell, RNA become transcriptage by the enzyme Reverse transcriptage .reverse transcriptage having two domain .one domain side destroy the unnessary thing and other are prepared necessary for the virus .Reverse transcriptase play vital role in the virus.it is also called RNA depended DNA polymerase .one complimentary DNA are prepare in the cell. The complimentary DNA are made up of nucleotide which is found by reverse transcriptase enzyme .then the next stpe RNA strand are destroyed by reverse transcriptase enzyme but it copy the genetic code of RNA virus this stage is called RNage H .then one new DNA sequence are prepare .this small sequence are integrated to the human DNA by help of enzyme name as Initigrage.so that the reason when person is cure AIDS but they are not free form HIV virus.
Type of Virus Gene
Where the human DNA is attach with the virus DNA this place are very sticky place and prompt resion(lock and key) it called LTR . in the lock specially type of enzyme are unlock the LTR to rapid replication of DNA occour. This enzyme is avabile in human cell as well virus prepare the enzyme for Rapid replication. Some example are NF-pc 3 are activate the LTR and it also increase the replication of DNA .
DNA of virus are composed of mainly three type of gene GAG,POL, ENV. GAG are responsible for P24 ,P7 , P17. POL are responsile for protiage. ENV gene are responsible for GP120,GP41. When it replicate all the enzyme are connect each other .they have no action or inactivate state .but the enzyme protiage are separate .According to reading frame of the virus the gene are prepare 6 types.
After preparing all the constitute capside are containing all constitute and removing form the cell to outer side for attach to Another CD4+ cell.