Azithromycin :Use, side effect, action ,price ,adverse reaction,History
Use of Azithromycin
Azithromycin is macrolide antibiotics.it is only used for the kill of bacteria. It is not used for the killing of any virus or fungus.
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It does not use any viral infection such as cold and fever.
It is mainly used with combining with another drug for better effect of the drug.
Azithromycin is used for various bacterial infection like
· Legionnaires pneumonia
Legionnaires pneumonia disease is severe lung inflammation cause by bacteria know as legionella. This disease is passed through person to person.
· Chlamydia trachomatis
This disease is commonly caused by bacteria known as chlamydia this bacteria is only replicate in the human cell. This transmitted due to sexual behavior worldwide. It infects the urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females.
Donovanosis is other wise known as Glanuloma inguinale is caused by bacteria known as Klebsiella granulomatis cause by genital ulcers.it is more common for less developed regions.
· Chancroid and PPNG urethritis
it is one type of infection in urethritis in male .it sexually transmitted disease caused by bactriaea.it more common in the western world.
Other potential use are pharyngitis, tonsillitis,sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, streptococcal and some staphylococcal skin and soft tissue.
How to use Azithromycin
If a doctor prescribes this medicine then ask the pharmacist .you can check the label or leaflet to get information about the medicine.
Normally take medicine by mouth as directed by a doctor, take only one tablet per day with or without food as directed by the doctor or pharmacist.
Some drug are more effective with an empty stomach and some drugs are more effective with after food.
Completed all the dose prescribe by the doctor, don’t discontinue the medicine after a course of small coureness.
Side Effect of azithromycin
As compared to other drug Side of the macrolide antibiotic effect of azithromycin is very less.
Most common side effects are
- . Headache
- . Abdominal pain
- . Dizziness
And another side effect like gas , vaginal yeast infection, rash, vomiting
If you have more or serious the side effect occurs the tell the doctor immediately.
Or if you have any abnormal function unlikely but serious like hearing problem, eye problem, swallowing , muscle weakness, liver problem, tiredness, continued vomiting inform the doctor immediately.
Get the medical help right time for treatment of the patient .
Side effect is based upon the amount of dose is taken per day.
Some serious side effect
There are some symptoms to know the liver problem
Loss of appetite,dark urine, yellowing on your skin, pain in upper stomach, weakness
Causes irregular heart rhythm
Allergic reaction symptom are
Trouble in breathing, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, throat, various skin reaction,
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Action of azithromycin
Azithromycin is category of macrolide antibiotic. It is otherwise known broad spectrum antibiotic.
Azithromycin is more active than other macrolides against H. influenzae but less active against the gram positive cocci.
High activity is exerted on respiratory pathogens like
· Chlamydia pneumonia
And some other
Campylobacter, ch.trachomatis, H. ducreyi, calm, granulomatous, N. gonorrhea.
Azithromycin has not killed the bacteria. it is only to stop the growth of bacteria.
Before I explain Azithromycin work 1st explain bacteria growth
How bacteria grow /bacteria replication
Bacteria replication is processed mainly two process
In this process bacteria DNA is unbound and separate only one strand is start transcription process by RNA polymerase enzyme which produces M RNA it contains all the copy of the DNA segment.
In the translation process MRNA is complete detach form the DNA and it is attached with the ribosome of bacteria.
Bacteria ribosome are two subunit small 30S and large 50S subunit .subunit joint together around the mRNA and polypeptide chain begins .T RNA align each other for making the strand of DNA.TRNA contain the amino acid for chain continue with the help of ribosome till the stop MRNA code is not come.
How Azithromycin work
Azithromycin is bind with 50S subunit of bacteria Ribosome to stop Transpeptidation, Translocation , chain elongation and bacterial protein synthesis .
After long time use of macrolide antibiotic bacteria ribosome 50S subunit has change frequently so antibiotic resistance of azithromycin.
Metabolism of azithromycin
Azithromycin is acid stability and rapid oral absorption and marked tissue distribution and intracellular penetration.
Concentration in most tissues exceeds that in plasma. High concentration is attained inside macrophages and fibroblasts.
The plasma half-life is less than 50 hr. renal excreted is approx. 10%
Due to high efficacy, better gastric tolerance and once per day.
Azithromycin has no harm effect for the pregnant women and also breastfeeding mother and child.
Dose of Azithromycin
Azithromycin is prepare two strength 250 mg, 500 mg.
For Legionnaires 500 mg azithromycin tablet or intravenous injection for 2 weeks is take-ups.
· Chlamydia trachomatis is 1 gm of azithromycin is enough.
· Lymphogranuloma is required 3 weekly doses of Azithromycin tablets.
· Donovanosis is required 500 mg tablets for 7 days for the completed cure of disease.
· For other bacterial infection 500 mg once daily 1 hour before and 2 hours after food is sufficient for cure the infection .food decrease the bioavailability of azithromycin.
Some brand name of Azithromycin tablets are
AZITHRAL 250 mg, 500 mg capsule and tablets are available at market in as alembic company. and 250 mg per 5 ml dry syrup is also available in the market.
AZIWOK 250 mg tablet and capsule 100 mg kid tablets are available in the market.
AZIWIN 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg tablets are available and 200 mg per 5 ml liquid available In the markets.
History of Azithromycin
Azithromycin is discovered in 1980 and patented in 1981 .by Pharmaceutical company Pliva .in the 1986 pliva and Pfizer signed a licensing .which gave Pfizer exclusive rights for sell of drug In the west Europe and USA market. Pliva gets licensed for sell drug east and rest of all Europe in brand name summed in 1988.Pfizer Launched azithromycin under pilva license in name of Zithromax in 1991.
Cost of Azithromycin
Generic medicine of azithromycin cost is started from 11 rupees to 194 rupees.
In the US market $4 is the course of treatment.in India it all most half price for the course of treatment of disease.